Leaked Ambulance Report:
News of the World (groan) leaked the ambulance report with the following excerpts from a Doctor that commented on the report:
Dr. Hilary Jones explains key parts of the ambulance report.
1) JACKSON is lying “supine” on the floor of his home in LA when the paramedics arrive. Dr Murray is conducting CPR (cardiopulmonary resuscitation) on his patient. The paramedics intubate Jackson, reporting “good lung sounds”. This is a simple check to make sure the tube has gone down the patient’s windpipe and not into the stomach.
They record that an intravenous drip is already in place in the patient’s left leg, put there by Murray.
It is unusual that it should be in his leg and not his arm. We can only speculate that Murray couldn’t find a vein in his arm because of long-term drug abuse, or that he had been dead for some time and his veins had retreated into his body.
Capnography, or the build-up of carbon dioxide in the body, is recorded initially at 16 parts per unit, then 26 when he is transported. This shows he is not breathing and therefore not expelling the gasses and they are building up inside him.
2) JACKSON’S Vital Signs – blood pressure, pulse and respiration – are measured twice by the paramedics, at 1pm and eleven minutes later. The chart shows “zero” in each case, meaning he was technically dead.
3) THE record shows the results of an electrocardiogram measurement. He would have had electrodes placed on his chest, arms and legs to measure heartbeat.
Three doses of drugs are given intravenously: 1mg of epinephrine, an adrenalin-like drug used to try to stimulate the heart.
The result is “N” for negative. They then try atropine. This blocks the nerves, taking the body’s brake off the heart to allow it to beat as much as it likes. Again, it is a negative result.
Finally they try sodium bicarbonate.
When there is no circulation, the blood becomes acidic as a by-product of the build-up of CO2. By introducing sodium bicarb you hope to return the blood to alkaline and help restart the heart.
It looks like they tried 50cc, about a cupful. Again the affect was recorded as negative. All these measurements have ASY next to them for asystole – no heartbeat. The treatments simply weren’t working.
4) ANY time the body is moved or given a shock the electrocardiogram flutters. But we can clearly see from the charts that Jackson was flat-lining.
5) THE patient does not respond to two rounds of RX/TX (treatment) so the hospital advises stopping. But Murray assumes responsibility and asks for Jackson to be transferred to the ER. There is a third round of treatment en route. At this point, his blood CO2 level is 26 per unit so his body is continuing to build up CO2.
6) THE “time left scene” and “time at hospital” indicators show the journey to UCLA took just six minutes.